January 4, 2008

Abstract Theatre: Behavior in No Dice

"I fill my notebooks with stuff that grabs me, and I basically spend the rest of my process desperately trying to figure out how these things all go together…"
--Getting Cosmic with Kelly Copper, by Kelly Copper and Amber Reed

My bonehead definition of theatre has always been that it's basically just watching other people on stage talking. But while other people are intrinsically fascinating to (most of) us, what we're watching when we watch them is their behavior. And herein lies the central problem in creating an abstract theatre.

Abstraction--breaking representation down to its constituent parts-- is arguably the central modernist impulse. But while it was possible to reduce any representational painting to an arrangement of colored shapes, it proved far more difficult to "abstract" theatre without reducing it to nonsense. Ages and ages ago, in the full flush of the 60's, some Young Turks in the Pomona College theatre department staged an "abstract" theatre piece in which a great many co-eds in leotards manipulated sheets of (donated) Dow Styrofoam while shouting nonsense syllables. My buddies and I, getting stoned in the light booth, concluded it was just about the dopiest thing we'd ever seen.

The problem is that we human beings have pretty-well defined expectations for human behavior, based on our real-world experience. We make sense of other people by drawing inferences about their (necessarily hidden) thoughts and feelings from their manifest actions and utterances. This meaningful relationship between outward actions and intent is what we call behavior, and over time--usually between 2 and 10 years for most people--we work up a rich but essentially stable and consistent set of interpretations of the most common behaviors.

It is this understanding of real people which we deploy in watching theatre, but representational theatre takes an obvious proposition--that we understand people by interpreting behavior--a (crucially fallacious) step further, insisting that the actions and expressions of an actor can only be "truthful" to the intentions of a character when they conform to the behaviors of everyday life. From this follows the modern day actor's desperate need to "justify" everything said and done, the wretched normalization of "psychology" in conventional play development, etc., etc.

Most theatre traditions, on the other hand (and to the extent we can claim to know them), have been stylized. Stylized behavior is similar to any other behavior in that outward actions "reveal" inner thoughts and feelings, the difference being that the visible actions not only need not resemble real-world behaviors but can, in fact, make up a set of essentially abstract signs and signals. Of course, this theatrical code must also be learned, but once acquired it becomes as valid a set of behaviors as any other--with the added value of being simpler and more internally consistent than real-world behaviors (and, because stylization assigns "meaning" to behavior by rule, it also simplifies the effort of reading a performance.)

The problem facing abstract theatre, then, is that you can't just have actors declaim nonsense and manipulate styrofoam because (a) this is obviously not real-world behavior and (b) there is no apparent way to otherwise decode such random behavior on the fly. Absent a long tradition of styrofoam manipulation, this sort of thing can never be theatrical. It may (or, in this case, may not) be possible to read this sort of thing as dance, but it can never become behavior which, I am arguing, is the fundamental constituent unit of theatre. From which it follows that abstract theatre can only be rendered from abstract (or, to be more accurate, non-representational yet seemingly "meaningful") behavior.

The pursuit of abstract behavior has long been evident in theatre. But with the exception of Richard Foreman (about whom more later) and performance-based theatres such as LeCompte, Squat, and Stanya Kahn, historical precedents have generally been reducible to high-art nonsense (Dada, Bald Soprano, Handke's Lake Constance) or dance (Sakonnet Point, Robert Wilson). Yet this may be changing, for in the last month alone two New York productions--Joyce Cho's revision of Running Commentary No. 4 by Scott Adkins and Pavol Liska & Copper's No Dice--have shown, using similar techniques, how theatrical behavior can become sustainable and evocative while remaining non-representational.

No Dice is an assembly in which the constituent threads are not text, but distinct performance elements[1]:

  • Dialog compiled from transcripts of recorded telephone conversations
  • A set of purely theatrical elements--such as bad accents, figure groupings ("blocking"), intonations and expressions enacting "emotions"--deliberately evocative of hammy, amateurish productions.
  • A codified set of expressive and complex hand gestures, apparently assigned at random, but used in the conventional sense, as emphasis

Because these threads are not all text (i.e., are not all made from the same "material), they can run simultaneously, in parallel. At any given moment, then, the onstage "action" consists of characters (a) speaking more-or-less verbatim dialog (which, given its usage and references, is automatically read as "real") , in (b) extremely "fake" poses and "situations," (which, by quoting theatrical cliches, suggest "intent" while resisting any sense of realism), punctuated by (c) occasional random, weird and "inappropriate" gestures, which both articualte the supposed "intent" of the text which further emphasizing the strangeness of the overall behavior.

At first, the experience is primarily "goofy," and the audience laughs. But over time--and time, the irreducible vector of all theatre, is essential to the experience of No Dice--pattern and order appear. At first, this is simply the recognition that we have seen the same random gesture before; that some of the phone conversations seem to describe the actions of the piece; that the splices in the dialog can be read as shifts of "scene" (thus approximating the discontinuities of pure-text assemblies, which are also experienced as edits). After about 45 minutes, it becomes apparent that the set of gestures is not infinite; that the set of poses and expressions is equally limited (most characters maintain one basic facial expression over the course of the entire evening); and finally that the overall method of the piece isn't going to change.

This is essentially what happens in the ninety minutes of first "act", and it is all prelude. For the second act consists almost entirely of conversations already heard in first, repeated with different actors and different behaviors. This not only further establishes an internal consitency, but introduces a sense of familiarity. And it is here, once the vocabulary of behaviors has acquired regularity and become familiar, that the effect of abstract behavior is possible. The events on stage become freighted with meaning, a sense of import which resists any attempt to identify exactly what the characters might "really" be thinking and feeling. The audience knows perfectly well that the disparate elements are essentially meaningless in and of themselves. They are just "stuff." They cannot possibly be what the moment, let alone the overall piece, is "about."[2] And yet--and especially whenever Kristin Worrall plays, once again, the trite, haunting Gnossienne Nr. 1--it is impossible to resist the feeling that something significant, even moving, is happening.

How on earth does it work?

As Copper's quote in my epigraph implies, the method is Richard Foreman's, but because Foreman's work is so well known, and these results are so different, a comparison may be instructive. There are three principal differences:

  • Continuity: The extended phone conversations of No Dice give an audience something to "follow," the sense of continuity Foreman deliberately subverts. Continuity in any form, however, not only makes the action more "plausible" (only in the sense that, as with real-world conversations, characters seem to answer each other and we can follow what they're talking about) but allows the audience to drop in and out of the action without losing their place. Continuity, if you will, establishes the rate at which information flows in the piece, and in No Dice the flow is pretty much of a trickle.

  • Bounded Heterogeneity: As noted earlier, the three principal threads of No Dice are not only made of different "stuff" (words, poses, hand-gestures) but have different "textures" (conversational/real vs. theatrical/artificial vs. gestural/inappropriate). Yet they are also revealed, over time, to be extremely limited. The formal system of the piece, then, consists of threads with little internal variation which are also significantly different from each other. Since any assembly is necessary read by inference, the "distance between" various elements is crucial to establishing tension, which in turn regulates the degree to which attentioncan be sustained. Foreman's work, which feels all-of-a-piece, is relatively dense. No Dice is, by comparison, lighter and more opened-up.

    Once the elements have become familiar, each thread assumes its usual role. We read the text (dialog) as the matter or content--"what is going on;" we read the poses, intonations and facial expressions as expression of the character's feelings, with the gestures as punctuation or emphasis (here, as much a formal device as supplying additional meaning). More importantly, we disregard the obvious inconsistencies between our perceived correspondences. The piece begins to make sense to the very degree that we no longer try to make sense of it.

  • Tone: Almost every description of No Dice mentions its charm. This is not simply a matter of the humor inherent in the continual mismatch between word and deed, action and intent. The deliberate invocation of "coarse" (i.e., amateur) theatre prevents the piece ever becoming too arty. To the extent that our beloved R. Foreman ever seems starchy and ponderous, it entirely due to the fact that he is so obviously making Art.

Despite such formidable accomplishments, it might still be possible to dismiss No Dice as a stunt or a fluke by assuming that its structure and effects depend on the specific materials chosen. One would not, after all, want to see unlimited productions of recorded phone calls, coarse acting or very strange gestures. But it seems obvious to me that the implications extend, radically, to both playwriting and directing, and specifically to the question of when, and how, behaviors are created. If it is now possible, as No Dice certainly suggests, that the actions of actors can be separated from the meaning of the dialog they speak, the very foundations of theatre have shifted.

[1]Those wanting a fuller description of the piece may refer to any of the reviews readily available online

[2]This was the seeming paradox over which even the friendliest of critics stubbed many a toe, attempting to read one or another "meaning" into the text, knowing all the while that this was beside the point.


August Schulenburg said...

I’d been meaning to write something in response to your gorgeous post about the structure of 1001, the single most interesting thing I’d read about the most interesting play I came to know last year. Mostly, I just wanted to thank you for articulating ideas that had been floating inarticulately around my brain, and for advocating for the power of new structures to liberate the possibilities of theatre.

But this post regarding No Dice has prompted me to post, if not a defense of representational theatre (which certainly doesn’t need my defending), a different way of looking at what is called experimental.

You say that human behavior is the fundamental constituent of theatre. But there is a great deal of human behavior that is not inherently theatrical, because it does not affect significant change within the constraints of theatre’s compression of time. Suit the action to the word, and not the word to the behavior. Action is behavior with an intensity of desire to change something or someone. It is human action, not behavior, and the change that prompts or follows it, that is the fundamental constituent of theatre.

Theatre comes from the impulse to understand change through experience. When representational theatre isn’t working, it’s usually because that order has been switched to experience change through understanding. ( Or, to saw old, show, don’t tell.) And when characters pursue their actions and change each other in the compression of theatrical time, we understand that change not psychologically, but experientially. We have, in a theatrical sense, lived the experiences of the characters. There is some science that shows this experiential empathy may be hard-wired into our brains through something called mirror neurons. But regardless of the science, I know the electric feeling when a character’s actions and the changes that result echo in my body; my own yet not my own; and I wish for that experience every time I step into theatre.

That is not to say I understand the psychology of the characters, or the morals of their actions, or the meaning of the changes. I can’t write a term paper on the indecisions of Hamlet or the immolations of Hedda (or I could, but would rather not). But I have experienced the actions and changes they created and endured, and carry that visceral experience into what little understanding I have of my own life. Moments from these plays come back to me in snatches of dialogue or in stage images, and some aspect of my changing life becomes quickened, I become more aware, my own actions amplified by the lives I’ve experienced in a theatre.

The quickest way to achieve that goal is to play in a language that everyone understands. It’s not the only way and it may not be the best way. But when a theatre maker decides to play in a language that may be fractured, confusing or alienating, she should ask what is being gained by that choice. Because often, the stylization that passes for experimental theatre is actually a dodge, and not a revelation.

A dodge because these plays actually have little to show or share about human experience. They can be reduced to a single intellectual conceit about life, usually negative. An idea on stage is a deadly thing. We are asked to think about it, and are either rewarded or frustrated by our ability to grasp it. Once grasped, we can discuss it with our own little flourishes in the lobby, and then our job is done. And because much of experimental theatre obscures that single intellectual idea through all sorts of theatrical gimmicks, it can take us the length of the play to grasp it, mimicking in this regard the unity of action of a representational play. And the tricky part is, if the intellectual idea isn’t grasped, it’s never the theatre makers fault. Rather, the audience wasn’t up to the necessary difficult of the play.

But great plays can be difficult while also being absolutely clear. A moment like this exists in the play W;t, where a professor of John Donne dying of cancer stops her eloquent description of life in a hospital and decides it’s better to show us. So she stops talking and just stares out at us. For a long time. Having seen three different productions of this play, the best production actually took the longest pause, what felt like over three minutes. A three minute stage silence, with no movement or perceivable action, was fraught with power as the reality of her dying was thrust into our own laps, made more unbearable with every moment we were asked to own it. What was happening was absolutely clear, but it wasn’t the idea of waiting for an inevitable death, obscured through diffuse theatrical patterns or games. It was the experience itself, created by the opening of empathy through the representational character’s actions.

While I liked the experience of No Dice, if I am being completely honest with myself, it was an entirely comfortable experience, and one that I have not needed to wrestle with afterwards at all. The detritus of language held as on a slide to the light and revealed to be beautiful – that is a charming idea, and one the reviews have eagerly repeated. But it is only an idea (though one happily juiced up with funny accents and costumes, catchy dancing and beat boxing, and sandwiches and drinks, given out by kind, talented people.)

A fascinating thing occurs at the end of the play, however, when a phone call between one of the creators and his mother suddenly brings in some of the old representational rules for playing. There is a context to the language, a relationship between the characters, and all the beautiful nuances of desire and need play out in the simplest of exchanges. Was three hours of abstracted language necessary to truly see the beauty of that interplay? I don’t know. And was the beauty of that interplay worth the three plus hours of time spent reaching it? I don’t regret having been there. But I haven’t had a pure change burned into me the way it seems you have. And when I need, in my own life, the quickening of awareness and amplification of experience that great theatre has given me, I don’t expect to feel those randomly repeated gestures in my mind’s eye.

I could very well be wrong. Maybe the play is just waiting for my own expectations to catch up to it, and the power of the play will hit me all at once, and not be a comfortable idea at all, but the thing itself.

But as it stands right now, a representational play in three minutes of silence created a more powerful theatrical experience for me than an experimental play did in nearly four hours of talking. The three minute silence was just as daring and new, despite it coming within a representational structure. There are incredible opportunities still remaining in that structure. And while I love your posts for examining all the possibilities of structure, comparing work in the representational tradition to old cars seems dangerous. Maybe a more apt metaphor would be a newborn child; they have the same number of arms, legs and eyes; but how they move and what they see within that same living structure is infinitely interesting. Dividing experimental and representational writing into camps just removes the possibility to experience the full range of structural choices that must be made every time a play is written or staged.

John said...


This is Little Theater Jeffrey, right? 70 Scenes from Halloween?

This is John Clancy and I want to talk to you about a Little Theater idea I have.

I'm at john@clancyproductions.com, or call 917.539.3153 if you get a minute.


Anonymous said...

"Abstract Theatre: Behavior in No Dice"

Absolutely agreed, focus on the messege behind every move and every words that moved the play. The most important things is, who is in control?

We must deliver it to the audience!

Welcome to our Blog, we read your thought.

Love,Laugh, LiveLive & Play,

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